Among 13 species of Moringa, Moringa oleifera is the most extensively explored and cultivated species around the world. This species is considered a miracle plant due to some impressive properties that are worth mentioning, apart from their drought-resistant and fast-growing characteristics. Nevertheless, the rapidly growing population has raised concerns for global food security for improved yield and nutritious crops. In this review, we describe the varieties and ecotypes of M. oleifera evidence from different countries associated with their genetic variability and phytochemical properties. Genetic variation happens due to several factors but is mainly caused by a variety of geographical factors resulting in the formation of subspecies, races, and ecotypes. The variation pattern of Moringa can be acknowledged through molecular screening and not limited to morphological and phytochemical features instead. Molecular markers such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR), and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) can be a useful tool in genetic diversity to indicate the presence of intraspecific variation of M. oleifera at molecular level. The phytochemical variability of M. oleifera according to their potent compounds has also been conversing with respect to their plant parts. Both molecular and phytochemical evidence provided can be utilized for the future development of this crop with improved yield and quality characters.
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