Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

Pharmacognosy Reviews,2016,10,19,33-38.
Published:February 2016
Type:Review Article
Author(s) affiliations:

Seyede Nargess Sadati1, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani1,2, Nastaran Ebadi1, Maryam Yakhchali1, Azadeh Raees Dana1, Fatemeh Masoomi1, Mahnaz Khanavi1,2, Farid Ramezany1

1Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Persian Medicine, Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

Cite This Article

Vancouver Style ::
S. Nargess Sadati, Ardekani, M. Reza Shams, Ebadi, N. , Yakhchali, M. , Dana, A. Raees, Masoomi, F. , Khanavi, M. , and Ramezany, F. , Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine, Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 33-38, 2016.