Miconia genus, belonging to Melastomataceae family, is widely distributed in tropical America and includes some native Brazilian species. This paper reviews the literature on this genus, focusing on its chemical constituents and biological activities, in order to build the base for further studies. Of about 1050 species of Miconia, only 21 were studied from a chemical point of view until the present moment. Among these species, 79 different secondary metabolites were isolated, divided into 7 classes: Flavonoids, triterpenes, phenolic acids, steroids, quinones, tannins and lignans. This chemical diversity gives of the genus interesting biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, antidiabetic, trypanocidal, antileishmanial, schistosomicidal, antimalarial, insecticidal, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.