Aerva sanguinolenta, A. sanguinolenta, (L.) Blume is a perennial herb that belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. The plant has widely been used as a traditional medicine for long time. It is rich in phytochemical constituents such as tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, sphingolipids, polyphenolic compounds and betacyanins. Moreover, it has significant therapeutic effects, including antihyperglycaemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, diuretic and anti-leishmania activities. The scientific validation is essential for the acceptance of medicinal plants as therapeutic agents against several disorders. Hence, the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, medicinal significance and pharmacological effects of the plant are discussed in this review.