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REVIEW ARTICLES
Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities
Sunil Kumar, Rashmi Malhotra, Dinesh Kumar
January-June 2010, 4(7):58-61
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65327  
The oldest remedies known to mankind are herbal medicines. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Euphorbia hirta is often used traditionally for female disorders, respiratory ailments (cough, coryza, bronchitis, and asthma), worm infestations in children, dysentery, jaundice, pimples, gonorrhea, digestive problems, and tumors. It is reported to contain alkanes, triterpenes, phytosterols, tannins, polyphenols, and flavanoids. This review describes the medicinal properties, chemical constituents, and other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta.
  18,066 296 15
Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents
Govind Pandey, S Madhuri
July-December 2009, 3(6):259-263
India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance against infection by re-stabilizing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. Several reports describe that the anticancer activity of medicinal plants is due to the presence of antioxidants in them. In fact, the medicinal plants are easily available, cheaper and possess no toxicity as compared to the modern (allopathic) drugs. Hence, this review article contains 66 medicinal plants, which are the natural sources of anticancer agents.
  17,617 618 7
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz.: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile : A review
Anjoo Kamboj, Ajay Kumar Saluja
July-December 2009, 3(6):364-374
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae) is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. The divine herb contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids, have been isolated from this species. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments and well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on that different extracts from this plant have been found to possess pharmacological activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcerous, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, muscle relaxant, sedative. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnopharmacological and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of B. pinnatum and to discuss them.
  15,757 405 10
Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review
RT Mahajan, MZ Chopda
July-December 2009, 3(6):320-329
Herbs have always been the natural form of medicine in India. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to presence of various complex chemical substances of different composition which contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin and phenolic compounds distributed in different parts of the plants. Ziziphus jujuba Mill, a member of the family Rhamnaceae, commonly known as Bor, is used traditionally as tonic and aphrodisiac and sometimes as Hypnotic-sedative and Anxiolytic, anticancer (Melanoma cells), Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiulcer, Anti-inflammatory, Cognitive, Antispastic, Antifertility/contraception, Hypotensive and Antinephritic, Cardiotonic, Antioxidant, Immunostimulant, and Wound healing properties. It possesses allied compounds viz. Ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin-bioflavonoids and Pectin A and various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transp­coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2)-a­arabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3)-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin. Saponin from leaves and stem are 3-O- ((2-O- alpha - D - furopyranosyl - 3-O- beta - D -glucopyranosyl) - alpha - L - arabinopyranosyl) jujubogenin and (6'''-sinapoylspinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin and 6'''-p-coumaroylspinosin. The present review discusses photo-chemistry, pharmacology, medicinal properties and biological activities of Za jujuba and its usage in different ailments.
  14,840 404 19
Mangifera Indica (Mango)
KA Shah, MB Patel, RJ Patel, PK Parmar
January-June 2010, 4(7):42-48
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65325  
Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.
  13,301 336 10
Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines
V Kusum Devi, Nimisha Jain, Kusum S Valli
January-June 2010, 4(7):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65322  
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.
  11,549 690 14
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit): An overview
Om Prakash, Rajesh Kumar, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta
July-December 2009, 3(6):353-358
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Syn. Kathal) belonging to family Moraceae is an integral part of common Indian diet and is freely available in Indian and adjoining continents, its medicinal properties are also mentioned in Ayurveda. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Artocarpus heterophyllus is an important source of compounds like morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, betulinic acid, artocarpanone and heterophylol which are useful in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases, convulsions, diuretic, constipation, ophthalmic disorders and snake bite etc.
  11,842 354 10
Flavonoids: A versatile source of anticancer drugs
Maheep K Chahar, Neelu Sharma, Mahabeer P Dobhal, Yogesh C Joshi
January-June 2011, 5(9):1-12
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.79093  PMID:22096313
An exponential increase in the number of studies investigating how different components of the diet interact at the molecular and cellular level to determine the fate of a cell has been witnessed. In search for anticancer drugs compelling data from laboratories, epidemiologic investigations, and human clinical trials showed that flavonoids have important effects on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. In many molecular mechanisms of action for prevention against cancer, flavonoids play a major role by interacting between different types of genes and enzymes. Many mechanisms of action have been identified, including carcinogen inactivation, antiproliferation, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, antioxidation, and reversal of multidrug resistance or a combination of these mechanisms. This review focuses on the anticancer activity of flavonoids as well as their molecular mechanisms, including the treatment of mammary and prostate cancer. This review also highlights some advanced derivatives of flavonoids, which play an important role against cancer.
  10,748 62 55
Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. - A comprehensive review
Manish Devgun, Arun Nanda, SH Ansari
July-December 2009, 3(6):359-363
The Pterocarpus marsupium belong to family Fabaceae and is widely distributed in central, western and southern regions of India. The role of Pterocarpus marsupium as anti-diabetic has been very well established. Its extract has been prepared using many methods like infusion, maceration, decoction and percolation. Several chemical constituents like pterostilbene, (-)-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupsin, etc., have been identified and isolated. Pterocarpus marsupium extract also shows promising results in cataract and hypertriglyceridaemia. This plant also finds its use as cardiotonic and hepatoprotective agent. Studies have also been reported to demonstrate its ability as a specific COX- 2 inhibitor. The present review explores its description, traditional uses, extraction methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological activity and commercial importance so that its potential as a multipurpose medicinal agent can be understood and appreciated.
  10,450 321 4
Role of herbs in the management of asthma
Ranjeeta Prasad, Rahul Dev Lawania, Manvi , Rajiv Gupta
July-December 2009, 3(6):247-258
Herbs have been the highly esteemed source of medicine throughout human history. They are widely used today indicating that herbs are a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. About 25-30 percent of today's prescription drugs contain chemical moieties derived from plants. The Indian system of medicine i.e Ayurveda alongwith classic texts like Bheshajya Ratnavali has a long-standing tradition that offers a unique insight into comprehensive approach to asthma management through proper care of the respiratory tract. Ayurvedic formulations used in the management of asthma, therefore, judiciously combine herbs to support the physiology of respiration, these herbs apart from exerting bronchial action also possess concomitant properties like anti­oxidant to support the digestive, cardiac, nerve functions and expectorant as well as just plain soothing herbs. Scientifically explored exhaustive reports have been published in Indian and International journals. Some of these herbs and their active chemical constituents which have a role in the management of asthma are compiled here and discussed in this review.
  8,669 424 2
A review on rasayana
Rahul Chulet, Pankaj Pradhan
July-December 2009, 3(6):229-234
Rasayana is one of the eight clinical specialities of classical Ayurveda. Rasayana replenish the vital fluids of our body, thus keeping us away from diseases. The rasayana therapy enhance the qualities of rasa, enriches it with nutrients so one can attains longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from disorder, youthfulness, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum development of physique and sense organs, mastery over phonetics and brilliance. Taking rasayana is helpful to increase the immunity of the person to keep him away from disease and also reverses the disease process and prevents the re-occurrence. The Rasayanas are rejuvenators, nutritional supplements and possess strong antioxidant activity. They also have antagonistic actions on the oxidative stressors, which give rise to the formation of different free radicals. Ocimum sanctum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Withania somnifera, Triphala rasayana, Chyawanprash, Brahma rasayana are very important rasayanas which are described in ayurveda and proved by new researches.
  8,315 751 3
Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health
V Lobo, A Patil, A Phatak, N Chandra
July-December 2010, 4(8):118-126
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.70902  
In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases.
  8,946 89 89
Phytopharmacologic aspects of Canscora decussata Roem and Schult
Neeraj K Sethiya, MB Patel, SH Mishra
January-June 2010, 4(7):49-57
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65326  
Nature is an inexhaustible source of secondary metabolites-different types of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and other classes of organic compounds. In the process of isolation, purification and determination of the structures of lead, with their biological effectiveness, every type of experimental tool and strategy, known too and developed over the years by various practitioners. The present review is an attempt to compile information on various aspects of Canscora decussata, "Shankhpushpi" of Indian traditional system of medicine. The phytoconstituents, such as phenolic compounds, xanthones, and triterpenoids were isolated from different parts of the plant. The plant possesses immunomodulatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antiinflammatory, spermicidal, central nervous system-depressive, and cardiostimulant properties. Clinical trials of marketed formulation showed very encouraging results.
  8,797 122 6
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview
Ompal Singh, Zakia Khanam, Neelam Misra, Manoj Kumar Srivastava
January-June 2011, 5(9):82-95
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.79103  PMID:22096322
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the "star among medicinal species." Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development.
  8,771 42 13
Solanum nigrum Linn.- A review
TS Mohamed Saleem, C Madhusudhana Chetty, S Ramkanth, M Alagusundaram, K Gnanaprakash, VS Thiruvengada Rajan, S Angalaparameswari
July-December 2009, 3(6):342-345
Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae) commonly known as 'Black nightshade' that have been extensively used in traditional medicine in India and other parts of world to cure liver disorders, chronic skin ailments (psoriasis and ringworm), inflammatory conditions, painful periods, fevers, diarrhoea , eye diseases, hydrophobia, etc. It has been found that Solanum nigrum contains the substances, such as total alkaloid, steroid alkaloid, steroidal saponins and glycoprotein, exhibiting anti-tumor activity. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used as a hepatoprotective agent. In this review, we have explored the phyto-pharmacological properties of the Solanum nigrum plant and compiled its vast pharmacological applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent.
  7,884 462 3
α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes
Sunil Kumar, Smita Narwal, Vipin Kumar, Om Prakash
January-June 2011, 5(9):19-29
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.79096  PMID:22096315
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high plasma glucose levels, leading to major complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective managements of diabetes mellitus, in particular, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia, is to retard the absorption of glucose by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in the digestive organs. α-Glucosidase is the key enzyme catalyzing the final step in the digestive process of carbohydrates. Hence, α-glucosidase inhibitors can retard the liberation of d-glucose from dietary complex carbohydrates and delay glucose absorption, resulting in reduced postprandial plasma glucose levels and suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia. In recent years, many efforts have been made to identify effective α-glucosidase inhibitors from natural sources in order to develop a physiologic functional food or lead compounds for use against diabetes. Many α-glucosidase inhibitors that are phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids,anthocyanins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, and so on, have been isolated from plants. In the present review, we focus on the constituents isolated from different plants having α-glucosidase inhibitory potency along with IC50 values.
  7,954 95 37
Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders
Arjun Patra, Shivesh Jha, P Narasimha Murthy
July-December 2009, 3(6):330-341
Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12), 23(24)-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β-­sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds, leaves, aerial parts and roots showed antinociceptive activity which was studied using both chemical and thermal methods of nociception in mice. Some Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha formulations of the plant are claimed to have anabolic-cum androgenic like activity. The plant was also studied for haematopoeitic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypotensive, diuretic, macrofilaricidal activities etc. Apart from the above established studies the plant is traditionally used for the treatment of anasaraca, diseases of urinogenital tract, dropsy of chronic Bright's disease, hyperdipsia, vesical calculi, flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, asthma, blood diseases, gastric diseases, painful micturition, menorrhagea etc. Therefore, these informations will help the scientists and researchers to screen the compounds responsible for different bioactivities and to elucidate the mechanism of action.
  7,505 379 7
Plants and phytochemicals for peptic ulcer: An overview
Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty, Biplab De, Joydeep Mazumder
July-December 2009, 3(6):270-279
World is rich in medical lore. Plants are the basis of life on earth and are central to people's livelihoods. The use of plants in religious ceremonies as well as for magic and medicinal purposes is very commonplace and widespread. Plants and phyto­constituents are better choice to treat diseases than the allopathic drugs. Most of the drugs used in primitive medicine were originated from plants and are the earliest and principal natural source of medicines. The drugs from plants are fairly innocuous and relatively free from toxic effects. The nature has provided us various medicinal plants which became the storehouse of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. In modern era many plant-derived compounds have been used as drugs, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. Peptic ulcer is widespread and common health problem now a day. Generation of free radicals, decrease in mucosal defensive factor or increase in mucosal injurious factor causes peptic ulcer. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants and their constituents which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. Various plants like Anogeissus latifolia, Alchornea castaneaefolia, Utleria salicifolia, Solanum nigrum, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus, Scoparia dulcis, Byrsonima crassa etc. and their phyto-constituents proved active in antiulcer therapy.
  7,355 429 10
A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents
R Gadekar, PK Singour, PK Chaurasiya, RS Pawar, UK Patil
July-December 2010, 4(8):136-146
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.70906  
Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects.
  7,472 32 7
Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations
S Saraf, CD Kaur
January-June 2010, 4(7):1-11
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65319  
Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations.
  6,818 556 19
Current knowledge and future direction of research on soy isoflavones as a therapeutic agents
V Kalaiselvan, M Kalaivani, A Vijayakumar, K Sureshkumar, K Venkateskumar
July-December 2010, 4(8):111-117
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.70900  
Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in Soy beans, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. The antioxidant property of the soy isoflavones, namely, genistein and daidzein is well established in different experimental models and also in clinical studies. The compounds have been found effective in the management of diabetes by acting on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. It reduces the risk of coronary heart disease by reducing the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Soy isoflavones have the potential in the treatment of osteoporosis to act on osteoclasts further to inhibit tyrosine kinase. Among the soy isoflavones, genistein is the potential compound found effective in the treatment of cancer by acting on androgen receptor further to inhibit tyrosine kinases. In this article, various aspects of the diverse biological activities of soy isoflavones and their potential clinical implications with mechanism of action, especially in the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neuroprotection, and also future area of research on soy isoflavones are reviewed and discussed.
  7,296 34 8
Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview
Priyabrata Pattanayak, Pritishova Behera, Debajyoti Das, Sangram K Panda
January-June 2010, 4(7):95-105
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.65323  
The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.
  6,998 289 21
Application of ISSR marker in pharmacognosy: Current update
Jayvant Kurane, Vaibhav Shinde, Abhay Harsulkar
July-December 2009, 3(6):216-228
ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) is one of the popular techniques of DNA fingerprinting because of several reasons. In many fields, ISSR markers have proved their utility. There are many applications of ISSR in various aspects of medicinal plants. ISSR based markers have utility in the fields like genetics, taxonomy, physiology, embryology etc. and recently the ISSR based markers have found wide applicability in pharmacognostic characterization of medicinal plants. As use of herbal medicines is increasing, there is urgent need of newer technologies and its proper application. In recent years, pharmacognosy has witnessed advent of such new technologies. This review provides detail list of plants, which are studied by ISSR marker and discuss some of the important application in medicinal plant research.
  6,339 814 -
SHORT REVIEWS
Salvadora persica
M Khatak, S Khatak, AA Siddqui, N Vasudeva, A Aggarwal, P Aggarwal
July-December 2010, 4(8):209-214
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.70920  
Salvadora persica (kharijal) is a large, well-branched, and evergreen shrub or a tree resembling Salvadora oleoides (meethijal) found in the dry and arid regions of India. Chewing sticks have been used for centuries for tooth cleaning, and are recommended by the World Health Organization in areas where their use is customary. Salvadora persica has enormous reported activities. It has potential medicinal and research activities. Salvadora persica is a promising product and is useful to produce antiplaque, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antimycotic, cytotoxic, antifertility, deobstruent, carminative, diuretic, astringent, and also used in biliousness, and rheumatism. This review highlights the pharmacologic effects and therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica. The chemical constituents present in different parts of the plant are also discussed.
  6,776 25 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update
Reena Kulkarni, KJ Girish, Abhimanyu Kumar
July-December 2012, 6(12):147-153
DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.99949  PMID:23055641
Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs
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