Guanosine (GUO) is an endogenous guanine nucleoside to which several neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects have been attributed in experimental in vitro and/or in vivo models of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury, nociception and depression. The objective of this work is to systematically review the neuroprotective effects of guanosine in experimental models in the CNS. The research was conducted through PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Cochrane Library and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and databases, where a number of relevant articles were found. Central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes release guanosine extracellularly, that has trophic effects. In the CNS, extracellular guanosine (GUO) stimulates mitosis, the synthesis of trophic factors and cell differentiation, including neuritogenesis, is neuroprotective and reduces apoptosis due to various stimuli. In this work we demonstrate that guanosine has a neuroprotective effect, through the survey of data that we carry out.