Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (A. aspera) is used as an emmenagogue, antiarthritic, purgative, diuretic, antimalarial, oestrogenic, antileprotic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, antibacterial and antiviral agent. It is reported to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and terpenoids. A review of chemical constituents present in various parts A. aspera and their pharmacological actions is given in the present article.